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Oram eBook Demi's miracle of mechanical skill, campaigning year after year amid the ineffable deprivations, and sometimes, Die Entdeckung des Orgons I. How can we determine the required noise spectral density for the voltage reference of this system? For example, assume that we have a bit system with a full-scale value of 5 V and the bandwidth is KHz. For a high-resolution system, the above equation may give PSD values that are not easily achievable in practice.

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The rest of the article takes a look at the techniques of voltage reference noise reduction. Some voltage references have dedicated noise reduction terminals. These terminals can be used to filter the noise of the reference and achieve higher performance. However, it should be noted that each voltage reference in this category may require different circuitry to implement noise filtering.

Hence, before doing anything, one should thoroughly study the device datasheet for any explicit information on this subject. Figure 3 below shows a simplified block diagram for these voltage references. This allows us to connect an external capacitor to the TRIM terminal and create a low-pass filter at the output of the bandgap circuitry. Additionally, we can add an external capacitor to the output terminal V OUT and create a low-pass filter.

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Adding these two capacitors, we obtain the schematic shown in Figure 4. This design is suitable for an 8 to bit data converter.

With a low ESR about 0. Driving a large load capacitor can make the op-amp marginally stable and lead to gain peaking. Note that a larger gain peaking will lead to a larger noise at the reference output see Figure 5. Considering all these details, we should thoroughly study the datasheet of a voltage reference before applying any filtering technique to suppress the reference noise. The schematic is shown in Figure 6.

As you can see, the single-pole low-pass filter created by R 2 and C 2 is at the output of the precision amplifier. In this way, we can avoid driving a large capacitive load by the voltage reference IC. While the low-pass filter will suppress the noise coming from both the reference and the op-amp, we still need the op-amp to be very low-noise, low offset, and low drift.

The resistors should be low TC precision types and the capacitors should be high-quality polypropylene capacitors. The detailed schematics cover simple and precision approaches at a variety of power levels. These manufacturing variations limit the initial accuracy of the current setpoint that the circuit can obtain with a fixed R1.

Shunt versus series: How to select a voltage-reference topology

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